Teachers’ Politeness Markers in Request in Classroom Interactions

Authors

  • Hieronimus Canggung Darong Universitas Katolik Santu Paulus Ruteng, Manggarai, Indonesia
  • A. Effendi Kadarisman Universitas Negeri Malang, Malang, Indonesia
  • Yazid Basthomi Universitas Negeri Malang, Malang, Indonesia

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.15642/NOBEL.2020.11.2.217-233

Keywords:

speech act; politeness marker; request

Abstract

This study is an attempt to examine politeness markers employed by Indonesian English teachers in classroom interactions. Purposefully chosen English teachers were observed, audio-recorded, and analyzed by using the politeness principle and Gricean cooperative principle. The conversation analysis revealed that to mitigate the illocutionary act of request, aside from using internal modifiers at most (consultative device, politeness markers, hesitators, hedges, play-downs, committers, down-toners, understaters), the teachers also used external devices as an adjunct to the head acts (grounder, sweetener, and disarmer). Besides, teachers intentionally violated the maxim for the sake of extending the talk. Further research needs to include more participants and instruments in a wider area of analysis.

 

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

Author Biographies

A. Effendi Kadarisman, Universitas Negeri Malang, Malang, Indonesia

Faculty of Letters, Senior Lecturer 

Yazid Basthomi, Universitas Negeri Malang, Malang, Indonesia

Head of English Department, Post Graduate Program

References

Ahmadian, M.J., & Dastjerdi, H.V. (2010). A comparative study of the perception of politeness of American reprimands by Iranian EFL learners and Americans. The Social Sciences, 5(4), 359–363. DOI: 10.3923/sscience.2010.359.363

Austin, J. L. (1962). How to do things with words. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.

Barbieri, F. (2015). Involvement in University Classroom Discourse : Register Variation and Interactivity. Applied Linguistics, 36(2), 151–173. DOI: 10.1093/applin/amt030

Behnam, B., & Niroomand, M. (2011). An investigation of Iranian EFL learners’ use of politeness strategies and power relations in disagreement across different proficiency levels. English Language Teaching, 4(4), 204–220. DOI: 10.5539/elt.v4n4p204

Blum-Kulka, S., & Olshtain, E. (1984). Requests and apologies: A cross-cultural study of speech act realization patterns (CCSARP). Applied Linguistics, 5(3), 196–214. DOI: 10.12691/education-4-4-9

Brown, P., & Levinson, S. C. (1978). Universals in language usage: Politeness phenomena. In E. N. Goody (Ed.). Questions and politeness: Strategies in social interaction, (pp. 256-289). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

Brown, P., & Levinson, S. C. (1987). Politeness: Some universals in language usage. Cambridge, UK: University Press.

Carassa, A., & Colombetti, M. (2015). Interpersonal Communication as Social Action. Philosophy of the Social Sciences, 45(4–5), 407–423. DOI: 10.1177/0048393115580265

Carr, C. T., Schrock, D. B., & Dauterman, P. (2012). Speech Acts within Facebook Status Messages. Journal of Language and Social Psychology, 31(2), 176–196. DOI: 10.1177/0261927X12438535

Chang, W. (2008). Australian and Chinese perceptions of (im)politeness in an intercultural apology. Working. Pragmatics and Intercultural Communication, 1(2), 59–74.

Christison, M. (2018). Speech Act Theory and Teaching Speaking. The TESOL Encyclopedia of English Language Teaching, 1–6. DOI: 10.1002/9781118784235.eelt0712

Crystal D, D. D. (1975). Advanced Conversational English. London: Longman.

Darong, H.C, Kadarismann A.F., Basthomi, Y., Suryati, N., Hidayati, M. & Niman, E.M. (2020). What Aspects of Questions Do Teachers Give Attention To? International Journal of Innovation, Creativity, and Change, 10(11), 191-208. Retrieved from: https://www.ijicc.net/index.php/volume-10-2019/149-vol-10-iss-11

Edmonson, W., & House, G. (1981). Politeness markers. In English and German. In F. Coulmas (Ed.). Conversational routine: Explorations in standardized communication situations and prepatterned speech (pp.157-185). The Hague, The Netherlands: Mouton Publishers.

Eshghinejad, S., & Moini, M. R. (2016). Politeness Strategies Used in Text Messaging : Pragmatic Competence in an Asymmetrical Power Relation of Teacher-Student. SAGE Open, 6(1),. DOI: 10.1177/2158244016632288

Frazier, L., Dillon, B., & Clifton, C. (2017). Together They Stand : Interpreting Not-At-Issue Content. Language and Speech, 61(2), 1–28. DOI: 10.1177/0023830917714608

Freed, A. F. (1994). The form and function of questions in informal dyadic conversation. Journal of Pragmatics, 21(6), 621–644. DOI: 10.1016/0378-2166(94)90101-5

Goffman, E. (1967). Interaction ritual: Essays on face to face behavior. New York, NY: Anchor Books.

Hosoda, Y. (2015). Teacher Deployment of ‘ oh ’ in Known-answer Question Sequences. Classroom Discourse, 7(1), 58–84. DOI: 10.1080/19463014.2015.1099111

House, J. (2003). Teaching and learning pragmatic fluency in a foreign language: the case of English as a lingua franca’. In A. Martínez -Flor, E. Usó Juan, & A. Fernández Guerra (Eds.). Pragmatic Competence and Foreign Language Teaching, (pp. 133-160). Castelló de la Plana: Publicacions de la Universitat Jaume I.

House, J., & Kasper, G. (1981). Politeness markers in English and German. In: Coulmas F (Ed). Conversational Routine. Berlin: De Gruyter Mouton, (pp. 157 – 86., 157–186).

Lakoff, R.T., & Ide, S. (2005). Introduction: Broadening the horizon of linguistic politeness. In R.T. Lakoff & S. Ide (Eds.). Broadening the Horizon of Linguistic Politeness, (pp. 1-20). Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

Leech, G. (1983). Principle of Politeness. London, England: Longman.

Li, S., & Taguchi, N. (2014). The effects of practice modality on the development of pragmatic performance in L2 Chinese. The Modern Language Journal, 98(3), 794–812. DOI: 10.1111/modl.12123

Manik, S., & Hutagaol, J. (2015). An Analysis of Teachers ' Politeness Strategy and Student's Compliance in Teaching-Learning Process at SD Negeri 024184 Binjai Timur Binjai – North Sumatra-Indonesia. English Language Teaching, 8(8), 152–170. DOI: 10.5539/elt.v8n8p152

Marie, A. & Rohan, B. (2011). Using Conversation Analysis in the Second Language Classroom to Teach Interactional Competence. Language Teaching Research, 15(4), 479-507. DOI: 10.1177/1362168811412878

Mohammadi, A.M., Nejadansari, D. & Manijeh, Y. (2015). The Index of Pragmatic Uses and Functions of Well in University EFL Classroom Discourse: A Case Study in Iran. Taiwan Journal of TESOL, 12(2), 86–116.

Niroomand, M. (2012). An exploration of upper-intermediate Iranian EFL learners’ perception of politeness strategies and power relation in disagreement. English Language Teaching, 5(10), 2012.

Parker, F., & Riley, K. (1994). Linguistics for non-linguistics. Boston, MA: Pearson Education.

Ren, J., & Gao, X. (2012). Negative Pragmatic Transfer in Chinese Students’ Complimentary Speech Acts. Psychological Reports, 110(1), 149–165. DOI: 10.2466/07.17.21.28.PR0.110.1.149-165

Tajeddin, Z., & Pezeshki, M. (2014). Acquisition of Politeness Markers in an EFL Context : Impact of Input Enhancement and Output Tasks. RELC Journal, 45(3), 269–286. DOI: 10.1177/0033688214555357

Tamimi Sa’d, S., & Mohammadi, M. (2014). A cross-sectional study of Iranian EFL learners’ polite and impolite apologies Seyyed. Journal of Language and Linguistic Studies, 10(1), 119–136.

Thomas, D. (1983). An Invitation to Grammar. Bangkok: Thailand Summer Institute of Linguistics, Mahidol University.

Watts R.J. (2003). Key Topics in Sociolinguistics: Politeness. New York, USA: Cambridge University Press.

Wijayanto, A., Prasetyarini, A., & Hikmat, M. H. (2017). Impoliteness in EFL : Foreign Language Learners ’ Complaining Behaviors Across Social Distance and Status Levels. SAGE Open, (July-September), 1–15. DOI: 10.1177/2158244017732816

Yazdanfar, S., & Bonyadi, A. (2016). Request Strategies in Everyday Interactions of Persian and English Speakers. SAGE Open, (October-December), 1–11. DOI: 10.1177/2158244016679473

Yule, G. (1996). Pragmatics. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.

Zhu, W. (2012). Polite Requestive Strategies in Emails : An Investigation of Pragmatic Competence of Chinese EFL Learners. RELC Journal, 43(2), 217–238. DOI: 10.1177/0033688212449936

Downloads

Published

2020-09-30

How to Cite

Canggung Darong, H., Kadarisman, A. E. ., & Basthomi, Y. (2020). Teachers’ Politeness Markers in Request in Classroom Interactions. NOBEL: Journal of Literature and Language Teaching, 11(2), 217-233. https://doi.org/10.15642/NOBEL.2020.11.2.217-233

Issue

Section

Articles
| Abstract views: 84 ,