ISLAM DAN PEMERINTAHAN : KONSEP POLITIK JAMAL AL BANNA
There are three ways of thought in the contemporary Islamic thought, especially in relationship between religion and state, which are; secularist, traditionalist, and reformist. Secularists state that Islam is only a religion which arranges the relationship between human and God. There is no regulation related to the state problem. In contrast, traditionalists argue that Islam is a comprehensive religion. People can find all regulation including a relationship with the state. Therefore, Islamic followers donâ€™t have to imitate the Western ways. On the other hand, reformists say that Islam is not religion which only arranges the relationship between humans and God, but itâ€™s not a comprehensive way too. According to reformists, it is enough for Islam to give based principles for people in order to guide activities and relationship among people in their communities and states.
According to Jamal al-Banna, there are four bases principles for the establishment of Islamic state, which are faith, justice, Syarâ€™iyyah, and al-Farrusyumuliyyah (individualist-universalist). The best example of Islamic state is the model from Rasulullah and Khulafaâ€™ur-Rasyidinâ€™s eras.
Also, Jamal al-Banna argues that syura concept is the based principle for running the Islamic state. All regulation should comply with the Quran, Sunah,Â and wisdom. A good example of this is economic system should guarantee the prosperity of people in this country based on Islamic values. Furthermore, one of the characteristics of Islamic state is that every person has a right to release his opinion.
In summary, Jamal al-Bannaâ€™s ideas can be categorized as reformist thought. He argues that there are no detailed and direct regulation about state in Quran and Sunah . However, in Quran and Sunah people can find code of ethic that can be used as guidance in human activities.
Keywords: Religion, State, and Syura